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Thread: Aniline Wax Pull-up - Leather Sectional Restoration and Scratch repair

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    Default Aniline Wax Pull-up - Leather Sectional Restoration and Scratch repair

    Hi Roger, thanks for the good information in this forum. I wanted to share some pictures and get some advice on the specific products and quantities.

    Below is a photo of one half of a Bernhardt leather sectional that I acquired. The previous owner had a cat that got to it in several areas. He has trimmed the loose fibers in some areas and sanded the leather down, though I am not sure if it did more harm than good. I have this in my garage until it's refinished and ready to introduce into my living room.

    Leather identification
    First off, I think this is a dyed Aniline. It absorbs water very easily in most areas, and it will lighten in color slightly when stretched. Could you confirm that this looks correct?

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    Here is a picture showing the fading that this sectional has endured. I would like to make this look nicer, but I am not set on bringing it back to full original, color matched perfection. I have kids, and this will be a piece of family furniture.

    What is the closest color that you have to match this?

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    Next, you can see the pictures of the damaged areas. These were cat scratched pretty severely, and then trimmed and sanded slightly. It is still bumpy over the areas which you can see. As I understand it, I should harden it, sand some more, use a filler, and then sand again. Is this correct?

    Also, there are 2 different leathers on this Sectional. The cushions and armrests are a very soft leather while the backing and immediately behind the headrest is a fairly hard leather. What does this mean? Will I need to treat these surfaces significantly differently?

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    Last edited by b2948kevin; 07-25-2013 at 01:06 PM.

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    >>>First off, I think this is a dyed Aniline. It absorbs water very easily in most areas, and it will lighten in color slightly when stretched. Could you confirm that this looks correct?

    Leather identification is the first step to cleaning and restoration, when the leather type is positively identified we can then follow accordingly to the appropriate “Leather Problem Solving Guide”.

    Tips on a positive leather identification in this project.

    By Appearance:
    Pictures #1, #2 & #4 (please put a number to the picture for easy reference for the next posting) looks aniline with a wax pull-up.
    The other 2 pictures show the back of the cushion that does not look like a pull-up without the wrinkle effect. Will need more pictures to show if these panel are all of the same type (at times there may have combination leather types and we want to be sure it will appear uniform throughout).

    By Absorbency:
    Absorbency testing should be done on unused hidden areas. Even pigmented leather will be absorbent on used areas and becomes as absorbent.

    By Stretch Test:
    A stretch or pull test is to the entire thickness of the leather and not merely on the surface, you will see a gradual lightening of color to the stress of the pull or stretch. Again this is preferably done on an unused area as well.

    By Wax Effect Replenishing:
    A replenishing test is recommended when the wax effect has dried out or diminishes. This test is to confirm if the leather was originally a wax pull-up. It should saturate the leather easily and rejuvenate all the characteristic of a wax pull-up with Wax Effect-8.6.


    Products information:

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    Leather Doctor Wax Effect-8.6
    Leather Doctor® Wax Effect-8.6 is design for aniline and nubuck wax pull-up leather types. This is a pH 8.6 waterbased emulsion for rejuvenating wax pull-up effect diminished through usage, ageing or cleaning.


    >>>Here is a picture showing the fading that this sectional has endured. I would like to make this look nicer, but I am not set on bringing it back to full original, color matched perfection. I have kids, and this will be a piece of family furniture.
    What is the closest color that you have to match this? ...


    Aniline Wax Pull-up leather finishes derives its color from a combination of a) Fatliquor-5.0, b) Wax Effect-8.6 and c) Aniline-21.

    The color closest to your picture is Red-Brown.

    A holistic approach is to hydrate the leather prior to color restoration that utilizes Hydrator-3.3 to activate the dormant dyestuff to resurface as well.

    Products information for reading are:


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    Leather Doctor Hydrator-3.3

    Leather Doctor® Hydrator-3.3 is a waterbased pH 3.3 leather-safe hydrator. It is a fatliquor preconditioner with multi functional abilities. Surface application is primary to check for even surface tension free of blotchiness prior to fatliquor replenishing. Structural application will require saturating to an optimum level with moisture oozing out when gently pressed between thumb and fingers.
    The multi functional abilities include:
    a) to check for surface tension for an even appearance free from blotchiness prior to fatliquor replenishing.
    b) To plumps, relaxes and separates crushed, shrunk and stick together fibrils for manipulating away-unwanted creases and wrinkles.
    c) To rectify alkaline overexposure areas by facilitating colloidal water movement to redistribute the leather constituents from surrounding areas.
    d) To activate the dormant dyestuff within the leather structure for color refreshing.
    e) To facilitates colloidal water movement within the inter-fibrillary spaces for wicking foreign soiling particulates to resurface.
    f) To stabilize, pH balance and charge the protein fiber below its iso-electric point (pI) ionic positive to hydrogen bond with the ionic negative fatliquor more effectively. This universal Hydrator-3.3 is for all leather types including pigmented, aniline, vachetta, nubuck, suede, hair-on-hide and woolskin.


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    Leather Doctor Fatliquor-5.0

    Leather Doctor® Fatliquor-5.0, a micro emulsion of fat, oil and water is an anionic charged pH 5.0 fatliquor for rejuvenating all leather types. It relaxes coarse breaks, creases and wrinkles enhance suppleness and prevent cracking. It softens the leather with stretchability, compressibility and flexibility, while enhancing its rip tensile strength greatly. It is for replenishing the original fat and oil that diminishes thru sun-bleaching, ageing, heat and alkaline overexposure or cleaning. On application, the water-encased molecule breaks free when hydrogen bond attraction takes place between the fat and oil with the protein fiber. The excess free water content wicks out leaving a breathing space behind for leather natural transpiration. The fat plumps the leather with fullness from easily collapsing into creases and wrinkles during stress or flex, while the oil lubricates the fibers so that they slide over one another smoothly like millions of inter-connecting hinges. Thus helps to keep leather at its optimum physical performance and prevent premature ageing. This universal Fatliquor-5.0 is for all leather types including pigmented, aniline, vachetta, nubuck, suede, hair-on-hide and woolskin.



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    Leather Doctor Aniline-21

    Leather Doctor® Aniline-21 is design for refinishing aniline leathers that is porous like smooth pure aniline or napped aniline like nubuck and suede. Other smooth aniline leathers that has existing impairing dye penetrating topcoat has to be stripped with the help of Stripper-2.3 otherwise use Aniline-76 instead to coat over existing topcoat. Aniline-21 is a new generation odorless waterbased “staining” transparent aniline dyestuff that is more lively and brilliant than most liquid dyes. Provides a more superior light fastness and fades resistance than most standard liquid dyes.

    Matching topcoat is mandatory to seal it with AnilineTop-21N for natural, AnilineTop-21W for waxy-matte, AnilineTop-21G for gloss or AnilineTop-21M for matte finishes.

    8 standard colors are available for direct application or to create a secondary or tertiary color to match.


    Roger
    www.LeatherDoctor.com

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    >>>Next, you can see the pictures of the damaged areas. These were cat scratched pretty severely, and then trimmed and sanded slightly. It is still bumpy over the areas which you can see. As I understand it, I should harden it, sand some more, use a filler, and then sand again. Is this correct?


    Sanding is an easy way out for such repairs and using a filler is meant for pigment finishes. When a transparent coloring is used thereafter, what ever repairs will show through.

    Alternative to sanding is to tug-in all the fibers back in place with leather Bond-3D, the darkening repairs has to be camouflage with a darker color. You may see some original scars that appears dark as well.

    Product Information:


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    Leather Doctor Leather Bond-3D (30ml)

    Leather Doctor® Leather Bond-3D is for leather structure bonding repairs, such as abrasion, cat-scratch, and filling repairs with Stucco-90, Pigment-64, Micro-54, Anline-76 and Aniline-21. This waterbased medium soft polyurethane leather bond will not lift the leather finishes unlike other dry solvent-based glue. Works in conjunction with leather Patch-4S as sub patch and suede fibers as fillers. Excess clean up when dry will require the help of Bond-7A.

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    >>>Also, there are 2 different leathers on this Sectional. The cushions and armrests are a very soft leather while the backing and immediately behind the headrest is a fairly hard leather. What does this mean? Will I need to treat these surfaces significantly differently?

    The mono-tone stiffer leather is not the pull-up types and possible to redyed as transparent aniline with Aniline-76 “coating” dyestuff.

    Product information:


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    Leather Doctor Aniline-21

    Leather Doctor® Aniline-21 is design for refinishing aniline leathers that is porous like smooth pure aniline or napped aniline like nubuck and suede. Other smooth aniline leathers that has existing impairing dye penetrating topcoat has to be stripped with the help of Stripper-2.3 otherwise use Aniline-76 instead to coat over existing topcoat. Aniline-21 is a new generation odorless waterbased “staining” transparent aniline dyestuff that is more lively and brilliant than most liquid dyes. Provides a more superior light fastness and fades resistance than most standard liquid dyes.



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    Leather Doctor Aniline-76

    Aniline-76 is a transparent dyestuff that is design for coating over existing topcoat. This lively and brilliant new generation aqueous dyestuff provides a more superior light fastness and fades resistance than most standard liquid dyes.

    To stain directly into leather with no impeding topcoat use Aniline-21 instead.

    Use AnilineTop-76 thereafter to seal dyestuff from crocking or bleeding that also decides the luster with either gloss or matte, or a mix for a satin luster.

    Nine (9) standard colors are available for direct application and for creating a secondary or tertiary color to match.

    The popular Antique-Brown is an example of a mix of one part Orange, Red-Brown and Dark-Brown.

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    Thanks for the reply, Roger.

    This is how I think I need to do the repair, can you let me know if my understanding is correct?
    All of the repairs will occur on the stiffer mono-tone leather backing
    After rehydrated and fatliquored, I will use the Leather Bond 3D to bond the damaged areas and lay down the fibers.
    I will then sand this area smooth, use a the Stucco 90 to fill, and then sand again for a good finish.


    Products Needed
    Restoration
    Prep 4.4
    Cleaner 3.8
    Rinse 3.0
    Hydrator 3.3
    Fatliquor 5.0
    Aniline Dy 21 - color Red-Brown
    Wax Effect 2.8
    Protector D+

    Repair
    Bond 3D
    Stucco 90
    Adhesor 73
    Leather Eraser 4
    Topcoat 79g


    Questions
    Do I need to mix pigment with the filler or adhesor?
    How much of all of the products above will I need for the sectional that I have described?
    Last edited by b2948kevin; 07-27-2013 at 08:15 PM.

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    Here are some additional pictures of the stiffer mono-tone backing:

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    Sequence of Process for the Mono-Tone Leather:

    Strip Deteriorated Finishes:
    1. Stripper-2.3

    Wet Preparation:
    2. Degreaser-2.2
    To work with Brush-1, Eraser-4 and/or 1500/2000grit wet sanding follows with towel extraction.
    3. Rinse-3.0
    Follows with towel extraction.

    Leather Rejuvenation:
    4. Hydrator-3.3
    5. Fatliquor-5.0

    Repairs:
    6. Bond-3D
    7. Stucco-90
    Note that when a transparent dyestuff is used thereafter, repairs may show through. To reduce contrast in appearance you may a) mix the stucco-90 with color dyestuff prior to application, b) Use a darker color dyestuff to camouflage the repairs. Red-Brown may be too light to cover efficiently, suggest going darker with Antique-Brown or Dark-Brown.

    Sealing & Adhesion Coating:
    8. Adhesor-73
    a) To seal surface damages surface for a smooth finish.
    b) To ensure proper adhesion for the color coating.

    Dye Coating:
    9. Aniline-76
    Top Coating:
    10. AnilineTop-76G

    Non-Stick, Rub-Resistant Protection:
    11. Protector-B+



    Sequence of Process for the softer Aniline Wax Pull-up Leather:

    Strip Deteriorated Finishes:
    1. Stripper-2.3

    Wet Preparation:
    2. Degreaser-2.2
    To work with Brush-1, Eraser-4 and/or 1500/2000grit wet sanding follows with towel extraction.
    3. Rinse-3.0
    Follows with towel extraction.

    Stain Dyeing:
    4. Aniline-21

    Leather Rejuvenation:
    5. Hydrator-3.3
    6. Fatliquor-5.0

    Wax Effect Replenishing:
    7. Wax Effect-8.6

    Optional Top Coating:
    8. Adhesor-73
    9. AnilineTop-21

    Non-Stick, Rub-Resistant Protection:
    10. Protector-D+ or D

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    >>>Questions
    Do I need to mix pigment with the filler or adhesor?



    Both Aniline-21 and Aniline-76 are “transparent” dyestuff not pigment.
    Filler as Stucco-90 is white in color, so bring it close to the desire color is preferred prior to application.
    In structure damaged repairs Bond-3D is used instead and it can be added to the Stucco-90 with any coloting.

    Tips:
    Transparent coloring is a higher end finishes just like wood varnishing versus wood painting. However, both beauty and blemishes will see through, depending on how light or dark the color is to cover all the blemishes darkening effect.


    How much of all of the products above will I need for the sectional that I have described?

    Not able to give you precisely, test out a panel and work out the rest of the surface area from there. Different absorbency will take up different amount especially products that go into the thickness of the leather like the Hydrator-3.3 and Fatliquor-5.0. On the same square foot area, the softer leather may takes up to 5 times more than the monotone area.

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    Ok, products have been ordered. I will follow up with results.

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    Materials have arrived. Now the work begins.

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    Picture shows that you have your distilled water.

    Mix them thoroughly according to mixing instruction, especially the Fatliquor LS-5.5, Wax Effect-8.6 and Protector-D to create a stable emulsion.

    Please show us your Phase of Process, so that we can help you see - so that you will not have to make "U" turn.

    As this is your first experience you will have moment of regrets, as you may overlook certain aspect of the process.

    With good pictures, help is just a button away.

    Roger Koh
    Leather Care Consultant

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    Thank you, Roger. I will follow with pictures each night that I am working on this.

    Just to be clear, I am taking a 2 phase approach. I am currently working on phase 1 which is to improve the look and feel of the soft Aniline Wax Pull Up leather on the cushions and armrests. I am not going to focus on the more stiff leather on the back of the couch. If everything comes out well in phase 1, I will move to Phase 2 and tackle the other leather.

    Last night I used the Stripper 2.3 product. I sprayed the leather and agitated with a medium soft brush. Quickly thereafter, I used the Clean 3.8 product on a clean cloth to clean. I did not notice any finish coming off, and there was very little coloration that came off during cleaning, only what I suspect was a little bit of dust on the surface. The surface looks just the same as when I started.

    Questions:
    1. Could the protectant be worn nearly completely off of the entire couch surface?
    2. Could the surface have never had a protectant on it from the beginning?

    I need to do some repairs on some cat scratches. I will be using the Leather Bond 3d to re-adhere the fibers and lay them down nicely again.

    Questions:
    3. Do I do this before or after applying the Aniline 21 Dyestuff?
    4. You mentioned that the Stucco is for pigment leather only. Will it show through if I use stucco on the soft Aniline Pull Up?

    My next step is to airbrush the Aniline 21 Dyestuff on.

    Questions
    5. Should I dilute the dyestuff before spraying?
    6. How will I know that the surface is ready to accept the dyestuff?
    7. I wetted an area on one of the cushions with water, and there are some small areas which are still not soaking the water in immediately, though they will soak it in over time. Should I be concerned?
    8. To confirm, I use the Aniline 21 before the Hydrator, correct?

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    >>>Last night I used the Stripper 2.3 product. I sprayed the leather and agitated with a medium soft brush. Quickly thereafter, I used the Clean 3.8 product on a clean cloth to clean. I did not notice any finish coming off, and there was very little coloration that came off during cleaning, only what I suspect was a little bit of dust on the surface. The surface looks just the same as when I started.
    >>>Questions:
    >>>1. Could the protectant be worn nearly completely off of the entire couch surface?

    Check it out by stripping from the hidden un used areas if you can detect any surface finishes – this is usually the topcoat – new aniline wax pull-up is typically gloss finish.


    >>>2. Could the surface have never had a protectant on it from the beginning?

    There is a topcoat otherwise the dyes may get transfer to white clothing.


    >>>I need to do some repairs on some cat scratches. I will be using the Leather Bond 3d to re-adhere the fibers and lay them down nicely again.
    >>>Questions:
    >>>3. Do I do this before or after applying the Aniline 21 Dyestuff?

    You may want to mix dye to the Bond-3D for repairing – I suggest you try out a panel to see how it turns out, as all repairs will take up a darkening effect. And the staining dyestuff may not able to stain this repair area when it dries. Remember that staining dyestuff only stain the protein fiber.


    >>>4. You mentioned that the Stucco is for pigment leather only. Will it show through if I use stucco on the soft Aniline Pull Up?

    Stucco-90 is suitable to used on non-stress areas, if areas is subject to stress, and flex Bond-3D would be a better choice.


    >>>My next step is to airbrush the Aniline 21 Dyestuff on.

    Before you apply this “staining dyestuff” Aniline-21, make sure you inspect the surface free of blotchiness – this surface tension may be rectified with Hydrator-3.3. If Hydrator-3.3 does not even out the surface tension – your degreasing is questionable and may have to repeat. Tips – If you spray Hydrator-3.3 and it gives an even absorption – then you will be assured that the dye staining application will also give an even appearance.


    >>>Questions
    >>>5. Should I dilute the dyestuff before spraying?

    You may dilute with distilled water if you think you do not want to go too dark. A good starting point would be the repairs and stain areas – check to see if the blemishes can be camouflaged by the dyestuff


    >>>6. How will I know that the surface is ready to accept the dyestuff?

    Tips – If you spray Hydrator-3.3 and it gives an even absorption – then you will be assured that the dye staining application will also give an even appearance – and it is ready to accept the dyestuff.


    >>>7. I wetted an area on one of the cushions with water, and there are some small areas, which are still not soaking the water in immediately, though they will soak it in over time. Should I be concerned?

    Yes, this is some foreign residue still lingering there, mild cases – used Hydrator-3.3, severe cases use Degreaser-2.2 follows with Rinse-3.0. This is the blotchiness I mention above and they have to be cleared down from within the leather structure.


    >>>8. To confirm, I use the Aniline 21 before the Hydrator, correct?

    Hydrator-3.3 is used both for before and after.
    The “before” is to rectify surface tension that you mentioned above >7 – “and there are some small areas, which are still not soaking the water in immediately”.
    The “after” is to have a full hydration into the leather structure to relax the leather structure and also to redistribute the dyestuff more evenly over the entire thickness of the leather. A full stretching is done when the leather structure soften up prior to Fatliquor-5.0.

    Roger Koh
    Leather Care Consultant

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    Thank you for the great replies, Roger.

    Ok, I applied all of my hydrator (will have to order more now) tonight in an attempt to get all of the leather to accept the subsequent materials. In 80% of the surface, it accepts the hydrator now without issues. The remaining areas are very resistant, and will not accept hydrator at all. Below are some videos I took of this situation. Could you let me know what the best course of action is with these areas?




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    Thanks for showing us the video.

    Your previous questions below about “protectant” or topcoat are there in those areas that resist penetration from testing with the Hydrator-3.3.

    >>>Questions:
    >>>1. Could the protectant be worn nearly completely off of the entire couch surface?
    >>>2. Could the surface have never had a protectant on it from the beginning?

    >>>Could you let me know what the best course of action is with these areas?

    These protectant / topcoat has to be removed with either Stripper-2.3 with eraser-4 / fine 2000grit sanding to break it up. Hydrator-3.3 surface tension checking prior to dye “staining” is to confirm that they are removed entirely. As seen from your video the uneven absorbent rate will produce “patchiness” or “blotchiness” when you apply the staining Aniline-21. Note that Aniline-21 will not adhere to the resistant protectant / topcoat and only to the absorbent leather fiber.

    Breaking up the surface tension or protectant / topcoat is necessary for the Fatliquor-5.0 to penetrate into the leather structure as well, otherwise those areas that do not accept Hydrator-3.3 will also not accept the Fatliquor-5.0 to soften it.


    Tips:
    Spraying with foam brush control will help working with vertical panels.
    Another technique is to use paper towel as reservoir and extension of the leather surface to assist a slower penetration into the topcoat / protectant more effectively.
    Last edited by Roger Koh; 09-05-2013 at 09:51 AM.

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    Thanks Roger. I will be ordering some more materials from you to rectify this.

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    You parcel is out today.

    From your video - spraying the Hydrator-3.3 with help of a foam brush to spread it will help you see the surface tension much better - try it out with the foam brush from the parcel.

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    Ok, I finally got some time to spend on this project. After hours of sanding with sandpaper and using the stripper product, I got all of the material to accept the hydrator. I used about 1.5 quarts of Hydrator to get to this point.

    I then hydrated thoroughly and airbrushed the Red-Brown dyestuff on. Be careful spraying the dyestuff on, because every run or blotch will show exactly as it looks when applying. For my project, I used 250ml of Dyestuff, but I would buy two of these if I had it to do over. There are some areas that I had to go thin because I ran out of material.

    After color, I put the Fatliquors on. I did 3 coats of Fatliquor, each coat took about 75% of a quart. This is what it looked like:

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    After the Dyestuff and Fatliquor, I put the Wax Effect on. This product requires that you spread it on, let it dry, and blow dry the wax to melt it. This gave the leather a really smooth look, and I recommend it. I only ordered 250ml and I wish I would have ordered 500ml for my application. I had to spread it pretty thin to get full coverage.

    Here is what it looks like with the wax effect applied and dried, but before I blow dried the wax:

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    After I melted the wax on the surface with a blow dryer, I applied the AnilineTop21w product. This went on easily and dried fairly quickly. I ordered 250ml of this, and I only used about 75% of the bottle, so a little goes a long way.

    After the AnilineTop21w, I applied the Protector D product. I ordered 250ml of this and only used about 2/3 of the bottle. Again, a little goes a long way. This product finally gave the leather the feel I was looking for. It gives it a nice draggy feel that you expect with a new piece of leather.

    This is what it looks like in my living room right now:

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    Overall impressions:

    I learned a lot while doing this. Some things I would do differently next time would be to order correct quantities in the first shipment. I didn't understand the process well and spent a lot of time trying to figure out the order of operations and the correct quantities. For that reason, I am recording this for those who come after me.

    This was my first experience airbrushing. It's tricky, and I got better at it towards the end of the project, but the first part produced some runs that I can see on the surface. Make sure you have enough dye and that it's the correct color. This came out more red than I had anticipated, but it's not a big deal for my application. If you're looking for a very specific color, take your time to get this matched.

    Here are the quantities that I would recommend that someone get for a couch of this size. Note that this is a pretty big sectional. If you're doing something smaller, you may need less of this.

    Stripper - 500ml at least. I am not sure that this was really effective for my though as I had to sand everything anyway
    Hydrator - 2 quarts. You will use a lot of this, and one quart just isn't enough.
    Aniline21 - 500ml. I only got 250ml, and I felt like I would have been good if I had another 100ml of this, so 350ml would have been perfect.
    Fatliquor - 2 quarts. You will use a lot of this also. I got the scented stuff, and it's really really strong. I like a little leather smell, but consider getting one scented and one unscented.
    WaxEffect - 500ml. I only got 250ml of this, and I was stretching to make it last over the whole surface. Get a full 500ml of this and lay it on liberally if you have extra.
    Aniline Top21d - 250ml. I ordered 250ml of this and I didn't come close to running out.
    Protector D - 250ml. I ordered 250ml of this and I didn't come close to running out.

  22. #22
    Join Date
    Jul 2013
    Posts
    13

    Default

    Remaining questions:

    I finished the last coat of product yesterday afternoon. I have been sitting on the couch a little today and there's some color transferring off onto my clothing. What should I do about this? Could it be because it hasn't cured long enough?

    The scented Fatliquor is very strong. How long will it take to dissipate the smell from this?

  23. #23
    Join Date
    Feb 2007
    Location
    Greater Vancouver, Canada.
    Posts
    4,514

    Default

    >>>I finished the last coat of product yesterday afternoon. I have been sitting on the couch a little today and there's some color transferring off onto my clothing. What should I do about this? Could it be because it hasn't cured long enough?

    >>>Aniline Top21d - 250ml. I ordered 250ml of this and I didn't come close to running out.

    The answer is the insufficient topcoat to seal the dyestuff.



    >>>The scented Fatliquor is very strong. How long will it take to dissipate the smell from this?

    This will take a long while as long as the fatliquor is still there. The topcoat will help reduce diffusing and sooner the scent will be less noticeable as our “olfactory organ” gets immune to it.

    Good to have a second opinion as scent is too personal, to some too fresh and to some too stale. Important is to have the right scent, that most people will appreciate and even a blind man can see leather through their olfactory organ or nose.

    Roger Koh
    Leather Care Consultant
    www.LeatherDoctor.com

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